Research Outputs


UWS Animal Ecology Lab - Flying Fox monitoring


Updated May 2024


Bauer, Silke, Elske K. Tielens, and Birgen Haest. "Monitoring aerial insect biodiversity: a radar perspective." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 379.1904 (2024): 20230113.

Donaldson, Nicolas Marcel, Xiaohan Yu, and Xiaoyu Wu. "Utilizing Weather Radar Data to Discover Bird Activity Hotspots in Southeast Queensland." Available at SSRN 4785227 (2024).

May, Peter T., et al. "Accuracy of polarimetric radar Z DR estimates: Implications for the quantitative observation of meteorological and non-meteorological echoes." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (2024).

Bowden, Annabel J., Christian Jakob, and Joshua Soderholm. "Identification of rainfall events and heavy rainfall events from radar measurements in southeastern Australia." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 129.2 (2024): e2023JD039253.


Brown, A., A. Dowdy, T. P. Lane, and S. Hitchcock, 2023: Types of Severe Convective Wind Events in Eastern Australia. Mon. Wea. Rev., 151, 419–448,

Guyot, Adrien, et al. "Segmentation of polarimetric radar imagery using statistical texture." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 16.19 (2023): 4571-4588.

Ackermann, Luis, et al. "Radar and environment-based hail damage estimates using machine learning." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions 2023 (2023): 1-24.

Raupach, Timothy H., et al. "Changes in hail hazard across Australia: 1979–2021." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 6.1 (2023): 143.

Anjita, N. A., and J. Indu. "Leveraging weather radars for desert locust monitoring." Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment (2023): 100983.

Protat, Alain, Valentin Louf, and Mark Curtis. "A Novel Doppler Unfolding Technique Using Optical Flow." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 40.10 (2023): 1263-1276.


Rogers, R.M., Buler, J., Clancy, T., Campbell, H., 2022. Repurposing open-source data from weather radars to reduce the costs of aerial waterbird surveys. Ecol. Solut. Evid. 3.

Shi, X., Hu, C., Soderholm, J., Chapman, J., Mao, H., Cui, K., Ma, Z., Wu, D., Fuller, R., Prospects for monitoring bird migration along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway using weather radar. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation.

Raupach, T., Soderholm, J,. Protat, A., Sherwood, S., An improved instability-shear hail proxy for Australia. Monthly Weather Review.

Brook, J., Protat, A., Soderholm, J., Warren, R., McGowan, H.  A Variational Interpolation Method for Gridding Weather Radar Data.  JTECH

Protat, A., Louf, V., Soderholm, J., Brook, J., Ponsonby, W. Three-way calibration checks using ground-based, ship-based, and spaceborne radars. Atmos. Meas. Tech

Ayat, H., Evans, J., Sherwood, S., Soderholm, J. Intensification of sub-hourly heavy rainfall. Science.

Ayat, H., Evans, J., Sherwood, S., Soderholm, J. A radar object-based examination of rain system climatology and including climate variability. Climate Dynamics.


Hitchcock, S. M., T. P. Lane, R. A. Warren, and J. S. Soderholm, 2021: Linear rainfall features and their association with rainfall extremes near Melbourne, Australia. Mon. Wea. Rev., doi:

Brook J, Protat A, Soderholm J, Carlin JT, McGowan H, Warren R. HailTrack - Improving Radar-Based Hailfall Estimates by Modelling Hail Trajectories. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology

Doyle, A., Stein, T., & Turner, A. (2021). Temporal patterns in radar‐observed convective cell development during the 2016 monsoon onset. Weather, 76(6), 180–184.

Jackson, R., Collis, S., Louf, V., Protat, A., Wang, D., Giangrande, S., Thompson, E. J., Dolan, B., & Powell, S. W. (2021). The development of rainfall retrievals from radar at Darwin. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(1), 53–69.

Rogers, R. M., Buler, J., Clancy, T., & Campbell, H. (2022). Repurposing open-source data from weather radars to reduce the costs of aerial waterbird surveys. Ecological Solutions and Evidence, 3, e12148.


Dowdy A, Soderholm J, Brook J, Brown A, McGowan H. Quantifying hail and lightning risk factors using long-term observations around Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres

Sgarbossa D, Soderholm J, Parkyn K, Otto P, McGibbony S. A damage assessment of the 20 May 2020 tornado in Waurn Ponds, VIC. Bulletin of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (not peer reviewed)

Bush, M., Allen, T., Bain, C., Boutle, I., Edwards, J., Finnenkoetter, A., Franklin, C., Hanley, K., Lean, H., Lock, A., Manners, J., Mittermaier, M., Morcrette, C., North, R., Petch, J., Short, C., Vosper, S., Walters, D., Webster, S., … Zerroukat, M. (2020). The first Met Office Unified Model–JULES Regional Atmosphere and Land configuration, RAL1. Geoscientific Model Development, 13(4), 1999–2029.

Crisologo, I., & Heistermann, M. (2020). Using ground radar overlaps to verify the retrieval of calibration bias estimates from spaceborne platforms. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13(2), 645–659.

Jucker, M., Lane, T. P., Vincent, C. L., Webster, S., Wales, S. A., & Louf, V. (2020). Locally forced convection in sub‐kilometre scale simulations with the Unified Model and WRF. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, qj.3855.

Louf, V., Protat, A., Jackson, R. C., Collis, S. M., & Helmus, J. (2020). UNRAVEL: A Robust Modular Velocity Dealiasing Technique For Doppler Radar. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 4(1), 741–758.

Raut, B. A., Louf, V., Gayatri, K., Australian Unified Radar ArchiveMurugavel, P., Konwar, M., & Prabhakaran, T. (2020). A Multiresolution Technique for the Classification of Precipitation Echoes in Radar Data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 58(8), 5409–5415.

Rutledge, S. A., Hilburn, K. A., Clayton, A., Fuchs, B., & Miller, S. D. (2020). Evaluating Geostationary Lightning Mapper Flash Rates Within Intense Convective Storms. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(14), 1–16.


Soderholm J, Turner K, Wedd T, Callaghan J, Brook J. High-Impact Severe Thunderstorm Events of South East Queensland. Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth System Science

Golaz, J. C., Xie, S., Zheng, X., Lin, W., Zhang, T., Vogelmann, A., Jackson, R., Collis, S., Hillman, B., Bosler, P., & Mcchesney, M. (2019). CMDV-RRM : Representation of Clouds and Convection across scales in E3SM.

Louf, V., Jakob, C., Protat, A., Bergmann, M., & Narsey, S. (2019). The relationship of cloud number and size with their large‐scale environment in deep tropical convection. Geophysical Research Letters, 2019GL083964.

Louf, V., Protat, A., Warren, R. A., Collis, S. M., Wolff, D. B., Raunyiar, S., Jakob, C., & Petersen, W. A. (2019). An Integrated Approach to Weather Radar Calibration and Monitoring Using Ground Clutter and Satellite Comparisons. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36(1), 17–39.

Meade, J., van der Ree, R., Stepanian, P.M., Westcott, D.A., Welbergen, J.A., 2019. Using weather radar to monitor the number, timing and directions of flying-foxes emerging from their roosts. Sci. Rep. 9, 1–10.

Narsey, S., Jakob, C., Singh, M. S., Bergemann, M., Louf, V., Protat, A., & Williams, C. (2019). Convective Precipitation Efficiency Observed in the Tropics. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015, 2019GL085031.

Protat, A., Klepp, C., Louf, V., Petersen, W. A., Alexander, S. P., Barros, A., Leinonen, J., & Mace, G. G. (2019). The latitudinal variability of oceanic rainfall properties and its implication for satellite retrievals. Part 1: Drop Size Distribution Properties. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2019JD031010.

Warren, R. A., & Protat, A. (2019). Should Interpolation of Radar Reflectivity be Performed in Z or dB Z ? Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36(6), 1143–1156.

Wohltmann, I., Lehmann, R., Gottwald, G. A., Peters, K., Protat, A., Louf, V., Williams, C., Feng, W., & Rex, M. (2019). A Lagrangian convective transport scheme including a simulation of the time air parcels spend in updrafts (LaConTra v1.0). Geoscientific Model Development, 12(10), 4387–4407.


Hagos, S., Feng, Z., Plant, R. S., Houze, R. A., & Xiao, H. (2018). A Stochastic Framework for Modeling the Population Dynamics of Convective Clouds. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10(2), 448–465.

Deo, A., Munchak, S. J., & Walsh, K. J. E. (2018). Cross Validation of Rainfall Characteristics Estimated from the TRMM PR, a Combined PR–TMI Algorithm, and a C-POL Ground Radar during the Passage of Tropical Cyclone and Nontropical Cyclone Events over Darwin, Australia. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35(12), 2339–2358.

Jackson, R. C., Collis, S. M., Louf, V., Protat, A., & Majewski, L. (2018). A 17 year climatology of the macrophysical properties of convection in Darwin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(23), 17687–17704.

Klepp, C., Michel, S., Protat, A., Burdanowitz, J., Albern, N., Kähnert, M., Dahl, A., Louf, V., Bakan, S., & Buehler, S. A. (2018). OceanRAIN, a new in-situ shipboard global ocean surface-reference dataset of all water cycle components. Scientific Data, 5, 180122.

Thompson, E. J., Rutledge, S. A., Dolan, B., Thurai, M., & Chandrasekar, V. (2018). Dual-Polarization Radar Rainfall Estimation over Tropical Oceans. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 57(3), 755–775.

Warren, R. A., Protat, A., Siems, S. T., Ramsay, H. A., Louf, V., Manton, M. J., & Kane, T. A. (2018). Calibrating Ground-Based Radars against TRMM and GPM. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35(2), 323–346.


Soderholm J, McGowan HA, Richter H, Walsh K, Weckwerth T, Coleman M. An 18-year climatology of hailstorm trends and related drivers across southeast Queensland, Australia. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. doi:10.1002/qj.2995

Utsav, B., Deshpande, S. M., Das, S. K., & Pandithurai, G. (2017). Statistical Characteristics of Convective Clouds over the Western Ghats Derived from Weather Radar Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(18), 10,050-10,076.


Gottwald, G. A., Peters, K., & Davies, L. (2016). A data-driven method for the stochastic parametrisation of subgrid-scale tropical convective area fraction. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142(694), 349–359.

Kumar, V. V., Protat, A., Jakob, C., Williams, C. R., Rauniyar, S., Stephens, G. L., & May, P. T. (2016). The estimation of convective mass flux from radar reflectivities. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 55(5), 1239–1257.

Protat, A., Delanoë, J., Strapp, J. W., Fontaine, E., Leroy, D., Schwarzenboeck, A., Lilie, L., Davison, C., Dezitter, F., Grandin, A., & Weber, M. (2016). The Measured Relationship between Ice Water Content and Cloud Radar Reflectivity in Tropical Convective Clouds. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 55(8), 1707–1729.


Dorrestijn, J., Crommelin, D. T., Siebesma, A. P., Jonker, H. J. J., & Jakob, C. (2015). Stochastic Parameterization of Convective Area Fractions with a Multicloud Model Inferred from Observational Data. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(2), 854–869.

Kumar, V. V., Jakob, C., Protat, A., Williams, C. R., May, P. T., Centre, C., Centre, R., Weather, A., Boulder, C., Division, P. S., Centre, A. Y., & Weather, A. (2015). Mass-Flux Characteristics of Tropical Cumulus Clouds from Wind Profiler Observations at Darwin, Australia. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(5), 1837–1855.


Kumar, V. V., Protat, A., Jakob, C., & May, P. T. (2014). On the Atmospheric Regulation of the Growth of Moderate to Deep Cumulonimbus in a Tropical Environment. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 71(3), 1105–1120.


Davies, L., Jakob, C., May, P., Kumar, V. V., & Xie, S. (2013). Relationships between the large-scale atmosphere and the small-scale convective state for Darwin, Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(20), 11,534-11,545.

Dolan, B., Rutledge, S. A., Lim, S., Chandrasekar, V., & Thurai, M. (2013). A robust C-band hydrometeor identification algorithm and application to a long-term polarimetric radar dataset. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 52(9), 2162–2186.

Kumar, V. V., Jakob, C., Protat, A., May, P. T., & Davies, L. (2013). The four cumulus cloud modes and their progression during rainfall events: A C-band polarimetric radar perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(15), 8375–8389.

Kumar, V. V., Protat, A., May, P. T., Jakob, C., Penide, G., Kumar, S., & Davies, L. (2013). On the Effects of Large-Scale Environment and Surface Types on Convective Cloud Characteristics over Darwin, Australia. Monthly Weather Review, 141(4), 1358–1374.

Penide, G., Protat, A., Kumar, V. V., & May, P. T. (2013). Comparison of Two Convective/Stratiform Precipitation Classification Techniques: Radar Reflectivity Texture versus Drop Size Distribution–Based Approach. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30(12), 2788–2797.

Peters, K., Jakob, C., Davies, L., Khouider, B., & Majda, A. J. (2013). Stochastic Behavior of Tropical Convection in Observations and a Multicloud Model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(11), 3556–3575.


Vulpiani, G., Montopoli, M., Passeri, L. D., Gioia, A. G., Giordano, P., Marzano, F. S., & Engineering, I. (2012). On the use of dual-polarized c-band radar for operational rainfall retrieval in mountainous areas. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51(2), 405–425.


Gu, J.-Y., Ryzhkov, A., Zhang, P., Neilley, P., Knight, M., Wolf, B., & Lee, D.-I. (2011). Polarimetric Attenuation Correction in Heavy Rain at C Band. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50(1), 39–58.

Marks, D. A., Wolff, D. B., Carey, L. D., Tokay, A., Systems, S., & County, B. (2011). Quality control and calibration of the dual-polarization radar at Kwajalein, RMI. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 28(2), 181–196.

Schwaller, M. R., Robert Morris, K., Precipitation, G., Project, M., Precipitation, G., Project, M., Applications, S., & Corporation, I. (2011). A ground validation network for the global precipitation measurement mission. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 28(3), 301–319.


Villarini, G., & Krajewski, W. F. (2010). Review of the different sources of uncertainty in single polarization radar-based estimates of rainfall. Surveys in Geophysics, 31(1), 107–129.

Xie, S., Hume, T., Jakob, C., Klein, S. A., McCoy, R. B., & Zhang, M. (2010). Observed Large-Scale Structures and Diabatic Heating and Drying Profiles during TWP-ICE. Journal of Climate, 23(1), 57–79.


Gourley, J. J., Illingworth, A. J., & Tabary, P. (2009). Absolute calibration of radar reflectivity using redundancy of the polarization observations and implied constraints on drop shapes. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26(4), 689–703.

Pope, M., Jakob, C., Reeder, M. J., Bureau, O. P. E., Centre, M. T., & Sciences, M. (2009). Regimes of the north Australian wet season. Journal of Climate, 22(24), 6699–6715.


Jakob, C., & Schumacher, C. (2008). Precipitation and latent heating characteristics of the major tropical western Pacific cloud regimes. Journal of Climate, 21(17), 4348–4364.


Thurai, M., Huang, G. J., Bringi, V. N., Randeu, W. L., Schönhuber, M., & Collins, F. (2007). Drop Shapes, Model Comparisons, and Calculations of Polarimetric Radar Parameters in Rain. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 24(6), 1019–1032.


Gorgucci, E., Baldini, L., & Chandrasekar, V. (2006). What Is the Shape of a Raindrop? An Answer from Radar Measurements. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 63(11), 3033–3044.


Williams, C. R., Gage, K. S., Clark, W., & Kucera, P. (2005). Monitoring the reflectivity calibration of a scanning radar using a profiling radar and a disdrometer. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 22(7), 1004–1018.


Joe, P., & May, P. T. (2003). Correction of Dual PRF Velocity Errors for Operational Doppler Weather Radars. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 20(4), 429–442.<429:CODPVE>2.0.CO;2

Keenan, T., Joe, P., Wilson, J., Collier, C., Golding, B., Burgess, D., May, P., Pierce, C., Bally, J., Crook, A., Seed, A., Sills, D., Berry, L., Potts, R., Bell, I., Fox, N., Ebert, E., Eilts, M., O’Loughlin, K., … Mueller, C. (2003). The Sydney 2000 World Weather Research Programme Forecast Demonstration Project: Overview and Current Status. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 84(8), 1041–1054.


Brandes, E. A., Zhang, G., & Vivekanandan, J. (2002). Experiments in Rainfall Estimation with a Polarimetric Radar in a Subtropical Environment. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 41(6), 674–685.<0674:EIREWA>2.0.CO;2


Bringi, V. N., Keenan, T. D., & Chandrasekar, V. (2001). Correcting C-band radar reflectivity and differential reflectivity data for rain attenuation: A self-consistent method with constraints. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39(9), 1906–1915.

Zhang, M. H., Lin, J. L., Cederwall, R. T., Yio, J. J., & Xie, S. C. (2001). Objective Analysis of ARM IOP Data: Method and Sensitivity. Monthly Weather Review, 129(2), 295–311.<0295:OAOAID>2.0.CO;2


Carey, L. D., Rutledge, S. A., Ahijevych, D. A., & Keenan, T. D. (2000). Correcting Propagation Effects in C-Band Polarimetric Radar Observations of Tropical Convection Using Differential Propagation Phase. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 39(9), 1405–1433.<1405:CPEICB>2.0.CO;2

Testud, J., Oury, S., Amayenc, P., Black, R. A., Amayenc, P., & Dou, X. (2000). The concept of “normalized” distribution to describe raindrop spectra: A tool for hydrometeor remote sensing. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, 25(10–12), 897–902.


McBride, J. L., & Frank, W. M. (1999). Relationships between stability and monsoon convection. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 56(1), 24–36.<0024:RBSAMC>2.0.CO;2


Keenan, T., Glasson, K., Cummings, F., Bird, T. S., Keeler, J., & Lutz, J. (1998). The BMRC/NCAR C-Band Polarimetric (C-POL) Radar System. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 15(4), 871–886.<0871:TBNCBP>2.0.CO;2